One of the main challenges in computer-assisted interventions is the intra-operative imaging of tissue shape, motion and morphology. This information is a prerequisite for the registration of multi-modal patient specific data that can be used for surgical planning, diagnosis and intra-operative guidance. In the context of minimally invasive surgery, an increasingly attractive approach involves 3D reconstruction of the soft-tissue surfaces using optical techniques. This tutorial reviews different state-of-the-art methods for intra-operative 3D surface reconstruction and addresses major issues related to the development of image-guided systems based on surface information.
The above figure shows an example images taken from a robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery procedure. The depth map of the surgical site computed using optical means is also shown. The heat map illustrates the tissue morphology and instrument motion over time also derived using optical methods.
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