Li Zhaoping's publications in chronological reverse order:

Note: Publications before late 2002 were published under name "Zhaoping Li (i.e., Li Z.)", and those after were published under name "Li Zhaoping (i.e., Zhaoping L.)". In order to avoid database errors and confusions, please cite each paper with its published author name.

Yan Y., Zhaoping L., and Li W. (2018) Bottom-up saliency and top-down learning in the primary visual cortex of monkeys PNAS, 2018.

Zhaoping L. and Ackermann J. (2018) Reversed Depth in Anticorrelated Random-Dot Stereograms and the Central-Peripheral Difference in Visual Inference Perception,

Zhaoping L. (2018) Ocularity Contrast Attracts Attention Exogenously Vision, 2, 12; doi:0.3390/vision2010012

Zhaoping L. (2017) Feedback from higher to lower visual areas for visual recognition may be weaker in the periphery: glimpses from the perception of brief dichoptic stimuli. Vision Research, 136: 32--49.

Zhaoping L. (2016) Efficient coding of multisensory or multimodality inputs AVA Christmas Meeting, Queen Mary University of London, December 19, 2016, Published in Pereption I-34: 10.1177/0301006617710756

Zhaoping L. (2016) From the optic tectum to the primary visual cortex: migration through evolution of the saliency map for exogenous attentional guidance, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 40:94--102.

May K.A. and Zhaoping L. (2016) Efficient Coding Theory Predicts a Tilt Aftereffect from Viewing Untilted Patterns Current Biology, 26(12): 1571--1576.

Zhaoping L. (2016) Olfactory object recognition, segmentation, adaptation, target seeking, and discrimination by the network of the olfactory bulb and cortex: computational model and experimental data Volume 11, Pages 30 to 39, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences.

Zhaoping L. (2016) Brains studying brains: look before you think in vision, Physical Biology, 13(2016)035002.

Zhaoping L. Carroll J. (2016) An analytical model of the influence of cone sensitivity and numerosity on the Rayleith match Journal of the Optical Society of America A Vol. 33, No.3, A338

Wang, F. Chen, M. Yan, Y. Zhaoping, L. and Li, W. (2015) Modulation of neuronal responses by exogenous attention in macaque primary visual cortex The Journal of Neuroscience, 35(39):13419-13429.

Zhaoping L. and Zhe L. (2015) Primary visual cortex as a saliency map: a parameter-free prediction and its test by behavioral data PLoS Computational Biology,11(10):e1004375. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004375 Here is Data for this paper

Mangano GR, Oliveri M, Turriziani P, Smirni D, Zhaoping L, Cipolotti L (2015) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left parietal cortex facilitates visual search for a letter among its mirror images. Neuropsychologia. 2015 Mar 3;70:196-205

Zhaoping L. and Zhe L. (2014) Primary visual cortex as a saliency map: parameter-free prediction of behavior from V1 physiology arXIV archived preprint, this paper is not updated and published as Zhaoping & Zhe 2015 in PLoS Comp. BioL.

Zhaoping L. (2014) Are we too "smart" to understand how we see?

Zhaoping L. (2014) Understanding Vision: theory, models, and data. Oxford University Press,

Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Massimiliano Oliveri, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Li Zhaoping, Lisa Cipolotti. (2014) Impairments in top down attentional processes in right parietal patients: paradoxical functional facilitation in visual search. Vision Research, 97:74-82.

Zhaoping L. (2013), Different perceptual decoding architectures for the central and peripheral vision revealed by dichoptic motion stimuli Perception 42 ECVP Abstract Supplement, page 21

Zhaoping L. (2013), Dichoptic orientation stimuli show that ocular summation bests ocular opponency in central but not peripheral vision The 9th Asian Pacific Conference on Vision (APCV 2013). PsyCh Journal, Vol 2, Issue S1, pages 45-68. doi:10.1002/pchj.33 (In the Session on "Binocular Vision & Awareness, July 7th, 2013).

L. Jingling, C-H Tseng, L. Zhaoping (2013) Orientation is different: Interaction between contour integration and feature contrasts in visual search Journal of Vision, September 10, 2013 vol. 13 no. 3 article 26.

May K. & Zhaoping L. (2013) The potential roles of saturating and supersaturating contrast-response functions in conjunction detection: Reply to Peirce Journal of Vision March 28, 2013 vol. 13 no. 4 article 22.

Zhaoping L. & Zhe L. (2012) Properties of V1 Neurons Tuned to Conjunctions of Visual Features: Application of the V1 Saliency Hypothesis to Visual Search behavior. PLoS ONE 7(6): e36223. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036223

Zhaoping L. and Zhe L. (2012) V1 saliency theory makes quantitative, zero parameter, prediction of reaction times in visual search of feature singletons this is a poster presentation at the annual meeting of Vision Science Society, May 11-16, 2012. The poster you can downloaded here also includes the quantitation comparison between the prediction and the data.

Zhaoping L. (2012) Gaze capture by eye of origin singletons: interdependence with awareness. Journal of Vision , 12(2):17, 1-22,, doi:10.1167/12.2.17.

May K.A., Zhaoping L. and Hibbard P. B. (2012) Perceived direction of motion determined by adaptation to static binocular images, Current Biology, 22:28-32, also see news and views by Fred Kingdom Binocular Vision: the eyes add and substract

Zhang X., Zhaoping L. , Zhou T. and Fang F. (2012) Neural activities in V1 create a bottom-up saliency map. Neuron, 73,183-192. You may also see Supplementary Information.

Zhaoping L. and Meng G. (2011) Dichoptic completion, rather than binocular rivalry or binocular summation i-Perception 2(6): 611- 614

May K.A. and Zhaoping L. (2011) Exploring the roles of saturating and supersaturating contrast-response functions in conjunction detection and contrast coding Journal of Vision, vol. 11 no. 9 article 11.

Zhaoping L. (2011) Neural circuit models for computations in early visual cortex Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2011 Oct;21(5):808-15. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Zhao L. Zhaoping L. (2011) Understanding auditory spectro-temporal receptive fields and their changes with input statistics by efficient coding principles PLoS Computational Biology, 7(8): e1002123.

Zhaoping L. Geisler WS, & May KA (2011) Human wavelength discrimination of monochromatic light explained by optimal wavelength decoding of light of unknown intensity. PLoS One 6(5): e19248. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019248 Click here for a pdf file of a talk presentation.

Zhaoping L. & Frith U. (2011) A clash of bottom-up and top-down processes in visual search: the reversed letter effect revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: human perception and performance, Vol 37(4), Aug 2011, 997-1006. doi: 10.1037/a0023099

May K.A., Zhaoping L., Hibbard P.B. (2010) Binocular integration in human vision adapts to maximize information coding efficiency Perception 39 ECVP Abstract Supplement, page 77

Zhaoping L. (2010) Ocularity as a basic visual feature dimension for bottom-up attentional attraction, Perception 39 ECVP Abstract Supplement, page 4

Zhaoping L. (2010) Gaze capture by task-irrelevant, eye of origin, singletons even without awareness during visual search, Journal of Vision, 10(7):1318

Zhaoping L. (2010) For your name's sake, Current Biology, 2010, April 27, page: R341

Oliveri M, Zhaoping L., Mangano G. R. Turriziani P, Smirni D., Cipolotti L. (2010) Facilitation of bottom-up feature detection following rTMS-interference of the right parietal cortex. Neuropsychologia 48(4):1003-1010

May K. A. & Zhaoping L. A (2009) Effects of surrounding frame on visual search for vertical or tilted bars Journal of Vision, 9(13):20, 1-19,, doi:10.1167/9.13.20.

Zhaoping L., Guyader N., and Lewis A (2009) Relative contributions of 2D and 3D cues in a texture segmentation task, implications for the roles of striate and extrastriate cortex in attentional selection Journal of Vision, 9(11):20, 1-22,, doi:10.1167/9.11.20

D'Angelo A, Zhaoping L, Barni M. (2009) A full-reference quality metric for geometrically distorted images. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 19(4):867-881

Zhaoping L. (2009) Perceptual learning of Pop-out and the primary visual cortex Learning & Perception 1:135-146.

Zhaoping L. (2008) After-search --- visual search by gaze shifts after input image vanishes. Journal of Vision, 8(14):26, 1-11,, doi:10.1167/8.14.26.

Zhaoping L. , May K. A., and Koene A. (2009) Some fingerprints of V1 mechanisms in the bottom up saliency for visual selection Published as Chapter 7 (page 137-164) in "Computational modelling in behavioural neuroscience: closing the gap between neurophysiology and behaviour", Editted by Dietmar Heinke and Eirini Mavritsaki, Psychology Press, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84169-738-3

Zhaoping L. (2008) Eye of origin singletons outcompete the salient orientation singletons for gaze attraction despite their elusiveness to awareness. Program 770.12, Annual meeting for Society for Neuroscience, November, 2008, Washington D.C. USA

Zhaoping L. (2008) Attention capture by eye of origin singletons even without awareness --- a hallmark of a bottom-up saliency map in the primary visual cortex. Journal of Vision, 8(5):1, 1-18,, doi:10.1167/8.5.1

Jingling L. & Zhaoping L. (2008) Change detection is easier at texture border bars when they are parallel to the border: Evidence for V1 mechanisms of bottom-up salience , Perception 37(2): 197-206

Zhaoping L. & Jingling L. (2008) Filling-in and suppression of visual perception from context --- a Bayesian account of perceptual biases by contextual influences , PLoS Computational Biology 4(2): e14 doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0040014 the paper on PLoS Compt. Biol. website. And a slide presentation on this paper. ,

Zhaoping L. (2007) Popout by unique eye of origin: A fingerprint of the role of primary visual cortex in bottom-up saliency --- Presented as Abstract 717.8 at the Annual meeting of Society of Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, USA, Nov. 2007.

Koene AR and Zhaoping L. (2007) Feature-specific interactions in salience from combined feature contrasts: Evidence for a bottom-up saliency map in V1. , Journal of Vision, 7(7):6, 1-14,, doi:10.1167/7.7.6

Zhaoping L. and May K.A. (2007) Psychophysical tests of the hypothesis of a bottom-up saliency map in primary visual cortex , Public Library of Science, Computational Biology 3(4):e62. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030062.

Ng J., Bharath AA., and Zhaoping L. A survey of architexture and function of the primary visual cortex (V1). European Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2007, Article ID 97961, 17 pages, 2007. doi:10.1155/2007/97961

Zhaoping L. and Guyader N. Interference with bottom-up feature detection by higher-level object recognition , Published in Current Biology 17, 26-31, (2007).

Zhaoping L. and Dayan P. (2006) Pre-attentive visual selection Published in Neural Networks 19(9):1437-1439.

Zhaoping L. Theoretical Understanding of the early visual processes by data compression and data selection in Network: Computation in neural systems 17(4):301-334 (2006).

Otto TU, Herzog MH, Fahle M. Zhaoping L. Perceptual learning with Spatial Uncertainties Vision Research 46,p.3223-3233 (2006).

Zhaoping L. and Snowden RJ (2006) A theory of a saliency map in primary visual cortex (V1) tested by psychophysics of color-orientation interference in texture segmentation. , Visual Cognition 14(4/5/6/7/8):911-933

Lewis A. and Zhaoping L. (2006) Are cone sensitivities determined by natural color statistics? Journal of vision, Volume 6, Number 3, Article 8, Pages 285-302.

Zhaoping L. (2005) Border Ownership from Intracortical Interactions in Visual Area V2 , in NEURON, Vol. 47, 143-153 (Note that the version downloaded here has better fonts, and fewer typo errors, in math expressions for those interested in technical details. [ The version in Journal is here ] ) [ A Preview on this article by K. Nakayama]

Zhaoping L. The primary visual cortex creates a bottom-up saliency map. In ``Neurobiology of Attention" Eds L. Itti, G. Rees and J.K. Tsotsos, Elsevier, 2005, Chapter 93, page 570-575

Zhaoping L. and May K. IRRELEVANCE OF FEATURE MAPS FOR BOTTOM UP VISUAL SALIENCY IN SEGMENTATION AND SEARCH TASKS (click here for the word file containing stimulus patterns) Presented at Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience, Oct. 2004, San Diego, USA.

May K. and Zhaoping L. Investigating salience mechanisms by using the effects of surrounding frame on the tilted-vertical asymmetry in visual search Presented at European Conference of Visual Perception (ECVP), Aug. 2004, Hungary.

Lewis A. Garcia R. and Zhaoping L. Understanding cone distribution from saccadic dynamics. Is information rate maximized? Neurocomputing, 58-60 (2004) 807-813. Abstract

Zhaoping L. V1 mechanisms and some figure-ground and border effects. In Journal of Physiology, Paris 97 (4-6) 503-515 (2003) Abstract

Zhaoping L. Lewis A. Scarpetta S. Mathematical analysis and simulations of the neural circuit for locomotion in lamprey. Physical Review Letters 92, 198106 (2004). Abstract

Lewis A. Garcia R. and Zhaoping L. (2003) The distribution of visual objects on the retina: connecting eye movements and cone distributions. Journal of Vision 3(11), article 21,, doi:10.1167/3.11.21

Zhaoping L., Lewis A., and Scarpetta S. Understanding the neural circuit for the central pattern generator of lamprey locomotion: mathematical analysis, simulations ,and predictions. Prog.# 278.7, Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, New Orleans, USA, Nov. 2003.

Zhaoping L., Lewis, A., and Scarpetta S, Computational understanding of the neural circuit for the central pattern generator for locomotion an dits control in lamprey. At "Advances in computational motor control II", Satellite event, Nov. 7, 2003, Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, New Orleans, USA..

Petrov Y. and Zhaoping L.Human luminance discrimination in natural images matches luminance correlations in natural images AVA meeting on Natural images, University of Bristol, Sep. 17, 2003.

Freeman E., Driver J., Sagi D, and Zhaoping L. Top-Down Modulation of Lateral Interactions in Early Vision: Does Attention Affect Integration of the Whole or Just Perception of the Parts? , Current Biology Volume 13, Issue 11 , 27 May 2003, Pages 985-989 [abstract]

Zhaoping L. From binocular input correlation to disparity tuning and ocular dominance in cortex "Vision in a 3-D world", AVA annual meeting, (Applied Vision Association), 19 March 2003, London

Zhaoping L. Herzog. M. Dayan. P. Nonlinear ideal observation and recurrent preprocessing in perceptual learning Network: Computation in neural systems. 14 p.233-247 (2003) Abstract

Petrov Y. and L. Zhaoping (2003) Local correlations, information redundancy, and the sufficient pixel depth in natural images. Journal of Optical Society of America A. Vol. 20. No. 1, p56-66 2003 [abstract]

Zhaoping L. (2002) Pre-attentive segmentation and correspondence in stereo, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society, Biological Sciences, Vol. 357, Number 1428, page 1877-1883 [abstract]

Silvia Scarpetta, Li Zhaoping and John Hertz (2002) Hebbian imprinting and retrieval in oscillatory neural networks
Neural Computation 14, 2371-2396, 2002 [abstract]

L. Zhaoping (2002) Optimal Sensory Encoding or postscript version The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks: page 815-819, The Second Edition. Michael A. Arbib, Editor MIT Press 2002

Li Z. (2002) Understand conjuction and double feature searches by a saliency map in primary visual cortex Second annual meeting of Vision Science Society, May 10-15th, 2002, Sarasota, Florida, USA.

Andrew Gillies, David Willshaw, and Li Z. Subthalamic-pallidal interactions are critical in determining normal and abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2002 Mar 22;269(1491):545-51.

Li Z. (2002) A saliency map in primary visual cortex Trends in Cognitive Sciences Vol 6. No.1. Jan. 2002, page 9-16 [abstract]

Li Z. (2001)Computational design and nonlinear dynamics of a recurrent network model of the primary visual cortex or PDF version Neural Computation 13/8, p. 1749-1780 [abstract]

Li Z. (2001) Modeling pre-attentive stereo grouping by intracortical interactions in early visual cortex (postscript) or PDF version 1st Annual Meeting of Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, Florida, May 4-8th, 2001. Published in Journal of Vision, 1(3), Abstract 168. [abstract]

Li Z. (2001) Computational design and nonlinear dynamics of a recurrent network model of the primary visual cortex or PDF version
Neural Computation 13/8, p.1749-1780, 2001 [abstract] (Please note that before Nov. 1st 2000, a wrong version of the manuscript was mistakenly posted. The current version is the correct one.)

Li Z. and John Hertz (2000) Multiple zones of contextual surround for V1 receptive fields (postscript) Or PDF version Annual Meetings of Society for Neuroscience, 2000. Abstract # 211.10 [abstract]

Li Z. and John Hertz (2000) Odor recognition and segmentation by a model olfactory bulb and cortex Network: Computation in Neural Systems 11. p83-102 (2000) [abstract]

Li Z. (2000) Pre-attentive segmentation in the primary visual cortex (postscript) Or PDF version Spatial Vision , Volume 13, Number 1, p. 25-50, (2000). [abstract] For readers more interested in analytical and mathematical details, and the relations of this work with other modeling and computer vision literature, see the Li (1999) Network: Computation in Neural Systems Volume 10, Number 2, May 1999. Page 187-212 (below).

Li Z. (1999) Can V1 mechanisms account for figure-ground and medial axis effects? or PDF version Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 12. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, Editors: SA Solla, TK Leen \& K-R Muller P. 136-142. [abstract]

Li Z. (1999) Visual segmentation by contextual influences via intracortical interactions in primary visual cortex (Postscript) Or PDF version Network: Computation in Neural Systems Volume 10, Number 2, May 1999. Page 187-212 [abstract]
For readers more interested in relations of this work with physiological/psychophysical data and experiments, (and less mathematical analysis), see the Li (2000) Spatial Vision , Volume 13, Number 1, p. 25-50, (2000). (above). Correction: In Oct. 2000, a typo was discovered on page 209 (page 23 of the manuscript), 9th line from the bottom of the page. "d >= 10" printed in the published version should be "d/cos( beta/4) >= 10" instead. This is an error in a model parameter, and this error should lead to quantitative (but not much qualitative) changes in model performance compared to those presented in this paper. Also, Delta (theta) in the expression for W means |Delta (theta)|. The same typo was also in the published version of Li Z. 1998 Neural Computation, but is corrected in the version below posted on this webpage (below). Hence, for all correct parameters of the model, download this paper.

Li Z. (1999) Contextual influences in V1 as a basis for pop out and asymmetry in visual search Proceedings of National Academy of Science, USA Volume 96, 1999. Page 10530-10535 [abstract]

Li Z. and Peter Dayan (1999) Computational differences between asymmetrical and symmetrical networks or PDF version Network: Computation in Neural Systems 10. 1 59-77, 1999 [abstract]

Li Z. (1999) Primary visual cortex as a saliency network for pre-attentive segmentation Poster number 10 (page 104 in the abstract book) at 3rd Annual Vision Research Conference -- ``Pre-attentive and Attentive Mechanisms in Vision", May 7-8, 1999, a two day satellite symposium prior to the 1999 meeting of ARVO. Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA.

Li Z. (1999) A V1 model of pop out and asymmetry in visual search NIPS conference Nov. 30-Dec.5, 1998, Published in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 11 M. S. Kearns, S. A. Solla, and D. A. Cohn, editors, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, June 1999. page 796-802 [abstract]

Li Z. (1998) Visual segmentation without classification: A proposed function for primary visual cortex Perception Vol. 27, supplement, p 45. (ECVP, 1998, Oxford, England).

Li Z. (1998)Pre-attentive segmentation in the primary visual cortex. MIT, AI Memo #1640, 1998 [abstract]

Li Z. (1998) A neural model of contour integration in the primary visual cortex (postscript) Or PDF version Neural Computation. 10. 903-940, 1998 [abstract]

Li Z. (1997)Visual segmentation without classification in a model of the primary visual cortex. MIT, AI Memo #1613, 1997 [abstract]

Li Z. (1997)Primary cortical dynamics for visual grouping Presented at "Theoretical Aspects of Neural Computation" workshop, May 1997, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Published in "Theoretical aspects of neural computation" K.M. Wong, I. King, and D.Y. Yeung (eds) page 155-164. Springer-verlag January 1998 [abstract]


Danmei Chen and Li Z. (1997) A psychophysical experiment to test the efficient stereo coding theory or postscript version Theoretical aspects of neural computation K.M. Wong, I. King, and D.Y. Yeung (eds), page 225-235, Springer-verlag January 1998

Li Z. (1996) A theory of the visual motion coding in the primary visual cortex or postscript version Neural Computation vol. 8, no.4, p705-30, May, 1996 [abstract

Li Z. (1995) Modeling the Sensory Computations of the Olfactory Bulb Models of Neural Networks Vol. 2, Eds. E. Domany, J. L. van Hemmen, and K. Schulten, page 221-251. Springer-Verlag New York, 1995

Li Z. (1994) Understanding ocular dominance development from binocular input statistics or postscript version The neurobiology of computation (Proceeding of computational neuroscience conference 1994) p. 397-402. Ed. J. Bower, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. [abstract]

Li Z. and J.J. Atick (1994) Efficient stereo coding in the multiscale representation or postscript version Network: Computations in neural systems Vol.5 157-174. [abstract]

Li Z. and J.J. Atick (1994) Towards a theory of striate cortex or postscript version Neural Computation Vol.6, p. 127-146. [abstract]

J.J. Atick, Li Z. , and A.N. Redlich (1992) What does post-adaptation color appearance reveal about cortical color representation? Vision Research Vol.33 p. 123-129 (1993) figures [abstract]

Li Z. ``Fast-Most information extraction by retinal Y-X cells" In Computation and Neural Systems, page 165-170. F.H. Eeckman J. M. Bower Eds 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers

Li Z. Different retinal ganglion cells have different functional goals. International Journal of Neural Systems, Vol. 3, No. 3, (1992), p237-248. Abstract

J. J. Atick, Zhaoping Li, and A. N. Redlich (1992) Understanding Retinal Color Coding from First Principles. Neural Computation, 4, 559-572, (1992). Abstract

Atick JJ, Li Z, Redlich AN (1990) Color coding and its interaction with spatiotemporal processing in the retina. Preprint IASSNS-HEP-90/75, NYU-NN-90/3, Nov 1990. 35pp

Herz, Andreas VM, Li, Z. and van Hemmen JL. (1991) Statistical mechanisms of temporal association in neural networks with transmission delays , Physical Review Letters 66(10):1370-1373

Li Z. (1990) A model of olfactory adaptation and sensitivity enhancement in the olfactory bulb, Biological Cybernetics, 62, 349-361. [abstract]

Li Zhaoping (1990) A model of the olfactory bulb and beyond, thesis for a Ph.D. in physics from California Institute of Technolog,

Li Z. and J.J. Hopfield (1989) Modeling the olfactory bulb and its neural oscillatory processings, Biological Cybernetics, 61, 379-392 [abstract]