Computer Science

- Paper covers emergent behaviour in population based search (e.g. PSO and GAs). In some ways we can treat a group as like an individual.
- Mathematically model populations as a hill climber on equivalent smoother landscape (Using genetic program to find equivalent landscape).
- Schema theorem based proof that crossover smoothes landscapes
- Runs on rugged one-mix problem
- Conclusions

- Present proof for two bits (large pop)
- But result can be generalised for any length bit string, any direction, any (homologous) crossover, at any rate, and with selection.
- Started Walsh analysis to give general frequency response.

- Ignore drift by assuming large population.
- n(00) copies of string 00. Two bits, so pop is split between n(00) n(01), n(10) and n(11).
- The average slope in direction x
_{2}is ½|n(11)-n(10)|+½|n(01)-n(00)|

- 100% one point crossover exact schema theorem says n’(i,j)=n(i,*)n(*,j)
- Where n’ indicates next generation

= ½|n’(11)-n’(10)|+½|n’(01)-n’(00)|

= ½|n(1*)n(*1)-n(*1)n(*0)|+½|n(0*)n(*1)-n(0*)n(*0)|

= ½n(1*)|n(*1)-n(*0)|+½n(0*)|n(*1)-n(*0)|

= ½(n(1*)+n(0*))|n(*1)-n(*0)|

= ½|n(*1)-n(*0)|

= ½|n(11)+n(01)- n(10)-n(00)|

= ½|n(11)-n(10) +n(01)- n(00)|

≤ ½|n(11)-n(10)|+½|n(01)- n(00)|

- Average slope in next generation
- Use exact schema theorem on previous gen
- Move common factors outside | |
- Collect in () and | |
- Use n(1*)+n(0*) = n(**) = 1
- Re-express schema in terms of strings
- Re-order
- Use |a+b| ≤ |a|+|b|

- Prove shows average gradient parallel to second dimension is smaller than it was before crossover.
- |a+b|=|a|+|b| only if sign(a)=sign(b).
- I.e. average slope is same only if two slopes we are averaging are either both up or both down.
- With L bits average over 2
^{L-1}slopes. Unlikely all 2^{L-1}vectors have the same sign.

- Paper contains proof of extension to
- Any direction parallel to co-ordinates
- Any length bit string
- Any type of crossover
- Any crossover rate

- In fact can also extend to include selection
- Obviously mutation tends to decrease number of popular strings and increase less numerous ones. I.e. to reduce slope

- Half of OneMix is identical to OneMax
- But if less than half bits set, fitness varies rapidly with #bits set (i.e. unitation).
- Odd unitation values are still OneMax but if an even #bits set, OneMix like ZeroMax.
- Scaled so optimum is at 000...
- But average fitness near 000... is less than average near 111...

- 1/L mutation and uniform crossover, binary tournaments, steady state pop=1000; GA filters landscape and population follows average to 111...
- GA with crossover responds more to low frequencies.

- 1/L mutation and no crossover, binary tournaments, steady state, pop=1000; population steps two bits at a time towards 000...
- GA with only mutation responds more to higher frequencies.

- By tuning balance between selection strength, mutation and crossover rates, the population can be driven to either extreme.

- Wright+Richter propose an infinite population model. It requires various assumptions but gives exact results with unitation problems of up to 60 bits.
- Plots on OneMix show:
- Selection tries to amplify high frequency components,
- Both mutation and crossover filter but crossover is more effective.

Initial population is Gaussian.

Selection responds to all frequencies.

Crossover responds to low frequencies.

Selection responds to all frequencies.

Mutation responds to higher frequencies

- In some ways a GA population behaves like a single individual moving on a transformed landscape.
- Population average moves like a hill climber on a filtered landscape. Can use genetic programming to find a suitable filter.
- Genetic operators (crossover and mutation) reduce gradient in the population, whilst selection tries to increase them.
- OneMix a useful test bed.

W.B.Langdon 25 July 2006